The Role of Family Flexibility and Maternal Self-Differentiation in Adolescents’ Self-Efficacy

Document Type : Original Article


1 Corresponding Author; M.A. in Counseling, Al-Zahra University, Tehran, Iran

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Counseling, Faculty of Educational Sciences and Psychology, Al-Zahra University, Tehran, Iran

3 - Full Professor, Department of Counseling, Faculty of Educational Sciences and Psychology, Al-Zahra University, Tehran, Iran


The purpose of this study was to explore the role of family flexibility and maternal self-differentiation in predicting adolescents’ self-efficacy. This is a descriptive-correlational research work. The population consisted of all the high school students in Tehran from among whom 255 students were selected using the multistage sampling method. The students participated in the study together with their mothers. They completed the Family Flexibility Questionnaire (Shakeri, 2003) and the Self-Efficacy Scale (Sherer et al, 1986) and their mothers completed the short form of the Differentiation of Self Inventory (Drake, 2011). For data analysis, correlation matrix and stepwise regression via SPPS22 were utilized. The results of the Pearson correlation matrix showed a positive significant relationship between family flexibility and children’s self-efficacy (r = 0.48, p < 0.01). The results of the regression analysis indicated that flexibility directly and the component emotional cutoff reversely could predict 29% of girls’ self-efficacy changes. Family flexibility and maternal self-differentiation and its components did not have any role in predicting boys’ self-efficacy.  Based on these results, it can be concluded that the family plays an important role in the formation of self-efficacy in adolescents, especially girls.


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