Comparison of the Impact of Human Givens Therapy (HGT) and Rational-Emotional-Behavioral Therapy (REBT) on Depression in Divorced Women in Shahrekord

Document Type : Original Article


1 PhD Candidate, Department of Psychology and Counseling, Faculty of Humanities, Hormozgan, Bandar Abbas, Iran

2 Associate Professor, Department of Psychology and Counseling, Faculty of Humanities, Hormozgan, Bandar Abbas, Iran

3 Assistant Professor, Department of Psychology and Counseling, Faculty of Humanities, Hormozgan, Bandar Abbas, Iran


Divorce is the cause of the collapse of the most basic part of society, and it causes mental disorders such as depression by creating a lot of stress. The aim of this study was to compare the impact of human givens therapy (HGT) and rational-emotional-behavioral therapy (REBT) on depression in divorced women in Shahrekord, Iran. This is a quasi-experimental study with pretest-posttest, a control group and a follow-up test. The statistical population included all the divorced women in Shahrekord, Iran. The sample consisted of 45 divorced women selected by the convenience sampling method and divided into experimental and control groups. The HGT and REBT treatments were administered in seven weekly sessions. The Beck Depression Inventory was used to collect data. The results of repeated measures analysis of variance showed that there is a significant difference between the mean scores of the experimental and control groups in depression (F = 40.69, p < 0.001). The intra-group results (p <0.001, F = 10.10) and the interaction between the factor and the group (p = 0.001, F = 32.65) were also statistically significant. The results of Scheffe test further showed that REBT was more effective than HGT. The findings of this study suggest that HGT could reduce depression in divorced women by focusing on changing mental patterns and emphasizing inherent resources, and REBT could so by focusing on replacing constructive thoughts with harmful ones.


رئیسیان، الرمالسادات؛ گلزاری، محمود و برجعلی، احمد (1390)، اثربخشی امید درمانی بر کاهش میزان افسردگی و پیشگیری از عود در زنان درمانجوی وابسته به موادمخدر، اعتیادپژوهی، 5 (17): 40 ـ 21.
رحیمی، چنگیز (1393)، کاربرد پرسشنامه افسردگی بک ـ ۲ در دانشجویان ایرانی، روانشناسی بالینی و شخصیت، ۲ (۱۰):  ۱۷۳ـ ۱۸۸.
فتی، لادن؛ بیرشک، بهروز؛ عاطف­وحید، محمدکاظم و دایسون­کیت، استفا (1384)، ساختارهای معناگذاری/ طرحواره­ها، حالتهای هیجانی و پردازش شناختی اطلاعات هیجانی: مقایسه دو چارچوب مفهومی، فصلنامه اندیشه رفتار، ش 11 (3): 312 ـ 426.
نظری­فرد، محسن (1396)،ارائه الگوی سازگاری پس از طلاق در زنان مطلقه: یک تحقیق کیفی، پایان­نامه دکتری، دانشگاه اهواز.
Abalos JB.( 2017). Divorce and separation in the Philippines: Trends and correlates. Demographic Research.;36:1515-48.
Abdul K N, Bifulco A. . (2011). Vulnerability life events and depression amongst Moslem Malaysian Women: Comparing thosemarried and those divorced orseparated. Soci, Psychiatric Epidemiol, 46(9): 853-862.
Adams S. Human Givens Rewind Treatment for PTSD and Sub-threshold Trauma. (2017).   Thesis submitted for the degree of Doctor of Psychology (PsyD). at the University of Leicester.
Amato PR, Anthony CJ.( 2014 ). Estimating the effects of parental divorce and death with fixed effects models. Journal of Marriage and Family. Apr;76(2):370-86.
Amato PR.( 2010 ). Research on divorce: Continuing trends and new developments. Journal of marriage and family. Jun;72(3):650-66.
Andrews W P, Wislocki A P, Short F, Chow D, Minami T. (2013). A Five-Year Evaluation of the Human Givens therapy using a practice research network. Mental Health Review, 8(3):165-176.
Animasahun R. A.( 2013). Psychology of Divorce. GCE 751 Lecture Series, Ibadan: Department of Guidance and Counselling, University of Ibadan.
Breslau J, Miller E, Jin R, Sampson NA, Alonso J, Andrade LH, Bromet EJ, De Girolamo G, Demyttenaere K, Fayyad J, Fukao A.(2011). A multinational study of mental disorders, marriage, and divorce. ActaPsychiatricaScandinavica. Dec;124(6):474-86.
Breslau JMiller EJin RSampson NAAlonso JAndrade LHBromet EJde Girolamo GDemyttenaere KFayyad JFukao AGălăon MGureje OHe YHinkov HRHu CKovess-Masfety VMatschinger HMedina-Mora MEOrmel JPosada-Villa JSagar RScott KMKessler RC. (2011). A multinationalstudy of mental disorders, marriage, and divorce. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 124(6):474–86.
Dryden. W. (2009).Rational- Emotive Behavior Therapy Distinctive Features, Routledge press.
Ellis A. (2001). Overcoming destructive beliefs, feeling, and behavior. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Book. 532-533.
Fata L, Birashk B, Atefvahid M K, Dabson K S.(2005). Meaning Assignment Structures/ Schema, Emotional States and Cognitive Processing of Emotional Information: Comparing Two Conceptual Frameworks. IJPCP. 11 (3) :312-326.
Fine M.A, Harvey JH.( 2006).  Divorce and Relationship Dissolution in the 21st Century. In M. A. Fine and J. H. Harvey (Eds.), Handbook of Divorce and Relationship Dissolution (pp. 3-11). New York: Taylor & Francis.
Gahler M. (2006). To divorce is to die a bit: A longitudinal study of marital disrupt and psychological distress among Swedish women and men. J. Counseling Therapy Couples Families, 14(4): 372-82.
Griffin J. Tyrrell I..(2006). Human givens, A new approach to emotional health and clear thinking, HG publishing, London,
Griffin, J. & Tyrrell, I. (2003) A new approach to emotional health and clear thinking (Chalvington,HG Publishing).
Griffin, J. & Tyrrell, I. (2008), An Idea in Practice: Using the Human Givens Approach, Human Givens Publishing Ltd, Chalvington.
Griffin, J. and Tyrrell, I. (2004), Human Givens: A New Approach to Emotional Health and Clear Thinking, Human Givens Publishing Ltd, Chalvington.
Heene E, Buysse A, Oost P. (2003). A categorical and dimensional perspective on depression within a nonclinical sample of couples. Family Process, 42(1): 133-149.
Jong-Meyer R, Beck B, Riede K. (2009). Relationships between rumination, worry, intolerance of uncertainty and metacognitive beliefs. Personality Individual Differences, 46(2009): 547-551.
Kadir NB, Bifulco A. (2011). Vulnerability, life events and depression amongst Moslem Malaysian women: comparing those married and those divorced or separated. Social psychiatry and psychiatric epidemiology. Sep 1;46(9):853-62.
Kashdan TB, Rottenberg J. (2010). Psychological flexibility as a fundamental aspect of health, Clin Psych Rev, 30(7): 865-78.
Mangayarkarasi K, Sellakumar G K. . (2017). efficacy of rational emotive behaviour therapy in the management of depression among HIV infected women  International Journal of Education and Psychology in the Community.7 (1 & 2): 41-64.
Nazari Far, M.( 2018).  Presenting the pattern of post-divorce adjustment in divorced women, a qualitative research, PhD thesis, Ahvaz University. [Persian].
Okhai, F. Human givens psychotherapy (2010). The Arab Journal of Psychiatry, 21(1): 9-28.
Pirmoradi MR, sadeghipoya F, Tabatabaee rad M, Veisy F, Gheitarani B, Davoodi R. Ghahari Sh. (2016). Comparison of Anxiety, depression and Emotional Self-Regulation in normal and Women. International Journal of Tropical Medicine, 11(5): 159-164.
Raesian A S, Golzari M, Borjali A. .(2016). Effectiveness of Hope Therapy on Reducing Depressive Symptoms and Preventing of Relapse in Cure-Seeker Women with Dependency to Narcotic Drugs. Jpurnal of research on addiction, 10(39):179-194.
Rahimi C. Application of the Beck Depression Inventory-II in Iranian University Students. CPAP. 2014; 2 (10) :173-188.
References (In Persian)
Sodani M, Shahidi M, Sanai Zaker B, khojastemehr R. (2019).  An Investigation into The Effectiveness of Human Givens and Adlerian Therapy on Happiness and Psychological Well-Being of Students of Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz. NeuroQuantology , 17 (04), 18-25.
Steiner LM, Suarez EC, Sells JN, Wykes SD.(2011). Effect of age, initiator status, and infidelity on women's divorce adjustment. Journal of Divorce & Remarriage. 52(1): 33-47.
Tsaroucha A, Kingston P, Stewart T, Walton L, Corp N. (2012). Assessing the effectiveness of the ‘‘human givens’’ approach in treating depression: a quasi experimental study in primary care..  Jornal of Mental Health Review, 17(2):90-103, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, ISSN 1361-9322.
Turner H A. (2006). Stress Social resources and depression among never-married and divorced rural mothers.  Rural Social. 71(3): 479-504.
Verme, Paolo .(2016). Adlerian brief therapy in Happiness, wellbeing and self-Control, Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, August: Vol. 71 Issue 2, pp: 146-161.
Vernon, A. (2003). Rational- Emotive Behavior Therapy. In Capuzzi, D., & Gross, D. Counseling and psychology therapy. Columbus, ehio Uppersaddle Riever New Jersy
Yates Y, Atkinson c. (2011). Using Human Givens therapy to support the well-being of adolescents: Pastoral Care in Education. An International Journal of Personal, Social and Emotional Development , 29(1): 35 – 50.
Zhaleh N, Zarbakhsh M, Faramarzi M. (2014). Effectiveness of Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy on the Level of Depression among Female Adolescent. Journal of Applied Environmental  and Biological Sciences, 4(4):102-107.